COMPREHENSIVE THYROID PROFILE (DRIED BLOOD AND URINE)
- Comprehensive Thyroid Profile include 12 hormone tests as follows:
- Test in Dried Urine Spot: Iodine (I), Bromine (Br), Arsenic (As), Selenium (Se), Creatinine (Crtn) and Mercury (HG)
- Test in Dried Blood Spot: Total T4, Thyroglobulin (Tgbn), Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), Free Triiodothyronine (fT3), Free Thryoxine (fT4) and Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody (TPOab).
- Symptoms of under-active thyroid (hypothyroidism) are tiredness, slow movements and thoughts, being sensitive to cold, weight gain, muscle aches, muscle cramps, brittle hair and nails, dry and scaly skin, constipation, depression, loss of libido (sex drive), pain / numbness and a tingling sensation in the hand and fingers, irregular periods, heavy periods.
- Symptoms of over-active thyroid (hyperthyroidism) are mood swings, nervousness, anxiety, irritability, feeling tired all the time, sensitivity to heat, muscle weakness, diarrhoea, needing to pee often, persistent thirst, difficulty sleeping, hyperactivity, itchiness, loss of interest in sex.
- Common signs of over-active thyroid are twitching or trembling, irregular heart rate, unusual fast heat rate, red palms of hands, warm skin and excessive sweating, loose nails, a raised itchy rash, hair loss or thinning, weight loss, eye problems (redness, dryness or vision problems.
- Collecting sample easily in comfort of your home or office
- Delivers results in 3-5 working days after receipt at the laboratory
- Free Delivery in the UK and Ireland
- Customers are responsible for shipping their sample to laboratory.
- No additional cost.
- Click to see Sample Test Result Report
Who Should Use This Test?
Comprehensive Thyroid Profile is for Individuals who required to do thyroid screening. Routine screening is recommended for:
- Individuals over the age of 50
- Anyone with a family history of thyroid disorders
- People experiencing symptoms of thyroid dysfunction
- Children who have Down’s Syndrome
- People with autoimmune disorders, especially those with history of autoimmune thyroids
Thyroid Hormone Imbalance
Thyroid disease or dysfunction can explain a wide variety of symptoms (see list below), yet it is notoriously under-diagnosed. The Colorado Thyroid Disease Prevalence Study published in 20001 found that 9.9% of the study population consisted of people who were not being treated for thyroid problems yet had abnormal thyroid function test results. This suggests that their thyroid disease was previously undiagnosed. This study also found a significantly greater incidence of thyroid dysfunction in women than in men in each decade after the age of 34. The American Thyroid Association estimates that over 12% of the US population will develop thyroid disease during their lifetime, and that as many as 60% of people with thyroid disease are not aware of it2. Overt hypothyroidism, with its characteristically high TSH and low circulating T4 levels, and hyperthyroidism, with low TSH and high T4 levels, are easy to recognize clinically. But an elevated TSH associated with normal thyroid hormone (T3 and T4) levels, defined as “subclinical” hypothyroidism, is thought to be present in 4-10% of the general population and in up to 20% of women over 60 years old; and a low TSH with normal T3 and T4 levels, subclinical hyperthyroidism, occurs in about 2% of the population and is most common in women, blacks, and the elderly3.
Elements that Affect Thyroid Function
We are all, to varying degrees depending on our dietary choices, our supplementation routine, or our lifestyle, exposed to the elements iodine, bromine, selenium, arsenic, and mercury. Levels of these elements in the food we eat is determined by soil levels and other environmental exposure of plants and animals that end up in the food chain and ultimately on our own dining tables. We can also be directly exposed to elements through environmental pollution of the air we breathe, as well as exposure through our skin.How does exposure to these elements affect health? Iodine is an essential component of T3 and T4, so its deficiency has a serious impact on thyroid hormone synthesis, while bromine is in the same chemical family as iodine and excessive amounts will compete with iodine in the thyroid. Selenium is a component of the selenoproteins, including the iodothyronine deiodinases, which convert inactive T4 to its active form in the body (T3), and glutathione peroxidase, which prevents free radical damage to the thyroid by destroying the hydrogen peroxide that is a by-product of thyroid hormone synthesis. Arsenic and mercury are toxic heavy metals that form tight complexes with selenium and therefore reduce selenium’s bioavailability, resulting in biological effects similar to seleniumdeficiency including a disruption to thyroid health. While bromine, arsenic, and mercury are known biological toxins, even iodine and selenium can potentially be toxic if dietary intake, including excessive supplementation, is too high.
Tests in Dried Blood Spot
TSH – Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
Produced by the Pituitary. TSH acts on the thyroid gland to stimulate production of the thyroid hormone T4 and T3. Higher than normal TSH can indicate over production of, or excessive supplementation with T4 and/or T3, Which acts in a negative feedback on the pituitary to reduce TSH production. Low TSH can also be caused by problmes in the pituitary gland itself, which result in insufficent TSH being produced to stimulate the thyroid (secondary hypothyroidism).
Free T4- Thyroxine
The prodominant hormone produced by the thyroid gland. It is an inactive ormone, and is conveted to its active form, T3, within cells. Free T4 is the non protein bound fraction of the T4 circulating in the blood, representing aboutn 0.04% of the total circulating T4, which is available to tissues. Low TSH combined with low T4 levels indicates hyperthyroidism. High TSH and low T4 ubducate a thyroid gland disease, such as autoimmune thyroiditis (Hashimoto’s).
Total T4 – Thyroxine
Total T4 includes both free T4 and protein-bound T4, and therefore represents the thyroid gland’s capacity to synthesize, process, and release T4 into the bloodstream. In contrast, free T4 represents only the circulating hormone that is bioavailable and not tightly complexed with thyroid binding globulin (TBG). Certain conditions, like oral estrogen usage or pregnancy, can
cause total levels to change due to liver-induction of TBG. This can result in no change in free T4 or lower bioavailable levels of free T4 even though total T4 increases.
Free T3 – Triiodothyronine
The active thyroid hormone that regulates the metabolic activity of cells. Free T3 is the non-protein-bound fraction circulating in the blood, representing about 0.4% of the total circulating T3, which is available to tissues. Elevated T3 levels are seen in hyperthyroid patients, but levels can be normal in hypothyroid patients because it does not represent the intracellular conversion of T4 to T3, which comprises about 60% of all T3 formed in tissues.
TPO – Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies
Thyroid peroxidase is an enzyme used by the thyroid gland in the manufacture of thyroid hormones by liberating iodine for attachment to tyrosine residues on thyroglobulin. In patients with autoimmune thyroiditis (predominantly Hashimoto’s disease), the body produces antibodies that attack the thyroid gland, and levels of these antibodies in blood can diagnose this condition and indicate the extent of the disease.
A protein which is rich in tyrosine and synthesized only in the thyroid gland. When bound to iodine, tyrosine residues in thyroglobulin become the source material for the synthesis of the thyroid hormones T3 and T4. When iodine levels are low, high levels of thyroglobulin can be found in the blood as iodine-poor thyroglobulin builds up and leaks from the thyroid into the bloodstream. Levels of thyroglobulin are an indicator of a person’s average iodine exposure over a period of weeks: the
greater the iodine exposure, the lower the thyroglobulin level. An elevated thyroglobulin, in the absence of more serious thyroid diseases such as thyroid cancer, which results in very high blood thyroglobulin levels, indicates low iodine status.
Advantages of a Simple Blood Spot Test
• No phlebotomist or centrifugation required, therefore less expensive and more convenient than conventional blood draws
• Nearly painless finger stick is used to collect the few drops of blood required
• Private and convenient for both patient and healthcare provider - collection at home or provider’s office
• Hormones and other analytes are stable in dried blood spot at room temperature for weeks, allowing for worldwide shipment
• Safe handling and transport of samples, as infectious agents are destroyed by drying
Clinical Aspects of Thyroid Dysfunction
Thyroid hormones are primarily involved in directing the metabolic activity of cells, and a properly regulated thyroid is therefore essential to a wide array of biochemical processes in the body. Functional hypo- and hyperthyroidism can also result in symptoms even when hormone levels appear to be normal21. Thyroid function can be affected by interactions between thyroid hormones and other hormone systems, particularly estrogens and cortisol, by some nutritional deficiencies, particularly iodine and selenium, and by environmental exposure to bromine, arsenic, selenium,
and mercury. Management of thyroid dysfunction requires an understanding of these interactions and careful monitoring of treatment with thyroid hormone testing22. The presence of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies has been found to help diagnose thyroid disease in patients with abnormal TSH and/or thyroid symptoms with normal thyroid hormone levels23-25, and is used to indicate the presence of autoimmune thyroiditis. Hashimoto’s disease is the most common cause of overt hypothyroidism and 95% of patients are positive for TPO antibodies. Thyroid dysfunction, including thyroid autoimmunity, is also strongly linked with infertility.