The thyroid is a small butterfly-shaped gland that sits behind and below the Adam’s apple. A wide range of factors from hormone imbalances to mineral deficiencies and environmental pollutants can interfere with thyroid production, leading to health problems.
Levels of key thyroid hormones can indicate whether there is a thyroid imbalance. These include:
Produced by the pituitary gland, TSH acts on the thyroid gland to stimulate production of the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4).
Free T4 – Thyroxine
The predominant hormone produced by the thyroid gland, T4 is converted to its active form, T3, within cells.
Total T4 – Thyroxine
Total T4 includes both free T4 and protein-bound T4, and is an indicator of the thyroid gland’s ability to synthesize, process and release T4 into the bloodstream.
Free T3 – Triiodothyronine
T3 is the active thyroid hormone that regulates the metabolic activity of cells.
TPOab – Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies
Thyroid peroxidase is an enzyme involved in thyroid hormone production. The body produces antibodies, including TPOab, that attack the thyroid gland in autoimmune thyroiditis and Hashimoto’s. Testing TPOab levels can diagnose these conditions.
Tgbn – Thyroglobulin
A protein rich in tyrosine, the residues of which when bound to iodine become the building blocks of T3 and T4. If iodine levels are low, thyroglobulin accumulates, thus high levels indicate insufficient iodine for healthy thyroid function.
Learn More About Thyroid Imbalance
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