- Iodine (I),
- Bromine (Br),
- Selenium (Se),
- Arsenic (As),
- Mercury (Hg),
- Cadmium (Cd),
- Creatinine (Cr), in Dried Urine spot.
- Safe and Easy to use
- Contains Urine Spot collection kit
- Test sample can be collected at the comfort of your home
- Free delivery in the UK (International delivery from £3.99)
- Customers are responsible for shipping their sample to laboratory.
- Test kit includes laboratory fee. No additional laboratory cost and tax.
- Test Result: You will receive your test result via email within 3-5 working days after Laboratory receives your sample. On your test result you will see your hormone levels in graphics and numbers. You will also see Laboratory's comments by Hormone Specialist Phd Dr. on your test result which suggests a healthy diet, what kind of exercise you should do and some reading materials how to maintain your hormone level balanced. After receiving your test result we strongly recommend you to show your test result to your GP and see if you need any treatment or further action needs to be taken.
- Test must be used within 12 months after purchase date.
- Test Requisition Form includes Symptom Checklist
- Requisition Form to complete including your personal and medical history
- Contains collection instructions
- Instructions on How to Use Urine Spot Collection Kit
- Shipping Instruction
- Return Envelope
Analysing elements can provide insight into why you may not synthesise or convert thyroid hormones and can help determine the cause of thyroid related symptoms. The thyroid gland regulates cellular energy metabolism, as well as controls heart rate and protein synthesis for proper growth and development.
Symptoms of thyroid problems include:• Weight gain or inability to lose weight even with exercise and diet
• Feeling cold all the time when others don’t
• Low energy and stamina (mostly in the evening)
• Irregular bowel habits – constipation/loose stools
• Dry, thinning, and itchy skin
• Hair loss
• Water retention
• Menstrual irregularities
• Low sex drive
• Memory lapses or slow/fuzzy thinking
• Dry/brittle hair and nails
• Weight loss
• Muscle and joint aches and pains
• High blood pressure
• Increased cholesterol levels
• Heat or cold intolerance
Thyroid Hormone Imbalance
Thyroid disease or dysfunction can explain a wide variety of symptoms (see list below), yet it is notoriously under-diagnosed. The Colorado Thyroid Disease Prevalence Study published in 20001 found that 9.9% of the study population consisted of people who were not being treated for thyroid problems yet had abnormal thyroid function test results. This suggests that their thyroid disease was previously undiagnosed. This study also found a significantly greater incidence of thyroid dysfunction in women than in men in each decade after the age of 34. The American Thyroid Association estimates that over 12% of the US population will develop thyroid disease during their lifetime, and that as many as 60% of people with thyroid disease are not aware of it2. Overt hypothyroidism, with its characteristically high TSH and low circulating T4 levels, and hyperthyroidism, with low TSH and high T4 levels, are easy to recognize clinically. But an elevated TSH associated with normal thyroid hormone (T3 and T4) levels, defined as “subclinical” hypothyroidism, is thought to be present in 4-10% of the general population and in up to 20% of women over 60 years old; and a low TSH with normal T3 and T4 levels, subclinical hyperthyroidism, occurs in about 2% of the population and is most common in women, blacks, and the elderly.
Elements that Affect Thyroid Function
We are all, to varying degrees depending on our dietary choices, our supplementation routine, or our lifestyle, exposed to the elements iodine, bromine, selenium, arsenic, and mercury. Levels of these elements in the food we eat is determined by soil levels and other environmental exposure of plants and animals that end up in the food chain and ultimately on our own dining tables. We can also be directly exposed to elements through environmental pollution of the air we breathe, as well as exposure through our skin.How does exposure to these elements affect health? Iodine is an essential component of T3 and T4, so its deficiency has a serious impact on thyroid hormone synthesis, while bromine is in the same chemical family as iodine and excessive amounts will compete with iodine in the thyroid. Selenium is a component of the selenoproteins, including the iodothyronine deiodinases, which convert inactive T4 to its active form in the body (T3), and glutathione peroxidase, which prevents free radical damage to the thyroid by destroying the hydrogen peroxide that is a by-product of thyroid hormone synthesis. Arsenic and mercury are toxic heavy metals that form tight complexes with selenium and therefore reduce selenium’s bioavailability, resulting in biological effects similar to seleniumdeficiency including a disruption to thyroid health. While bromine, arsenic, and mercury are known biological toxins, even iodine and selenium can potentially be toxic if dietary intake, including excessive supplementation, is too high.
Tests in Dried Urine
Urine dried on filter paper strips is a convenient and practical way to test iodine, bromine, selenium, arsenic and mercury to assess deficient, adequate, and toxic intakes. Our Laboratory is a pioneer in commercial testing for elements using a simple, two-point (morning and night) urine collection, into which a filter paper strip is dipped and allowed to dry. Our research has shown the dried urine test to be accurate and comparable to full 24-hour liquid collections, which are cumbersome and inconvenient for patients. To correct results for hydration status, creatinine is also measured and element test results are expressed in µg/g creatinine.
90% of dietary iodine is eliminated in urine, adequacy of recent iodine intake can be accurately assessed with dried urine testing.
A common component of flame proofing agents, fumigants, medications, food products, and pool/spasanitizers. Bromine has no known function in the body but high environmental exposure can lead to excess accumulation. If iodine status is low, bromine competes with iodine for tyrosine binding sites within thyroglobulin and thereby impedes thyroid hormone synthesis. Bromine is mostly excreted in urine, so dried urine analysis can indicate excessive bromine exposure.
An essential dietary element that is incorporated into the selenoproteins in the body, which include glutathione peroxidases, thioredoxin reductases, iodothyronine deiodinases, and the extracellular glycoprotein, selenoprotein P10. These selenoproteins play vital roles in thyroid hormone synthesis, free radical scavenging, DNA synthesis, and cancer prevention11. Foods such as brazil nuts, seafood, eggs, and grains are significant selenium sources. The optimal therapeutic range for selenium is narrow: excess selenium intake can result in toxicity, while inadequate selenium affects thyroid function because of impaired synthesis and conversion of T4 into the active T312. Urine is the major route of selenium elimination, therefore dried urinary selenium is an indicator of dietary selenium intake.
An environmental toxin, found in some foods such as fish, shellfish, seaweed, rice, and fruit. Arsenic is a heavy metal with multiple toxic effects in the body including carcinogenesis, goiter, diabetes, skin diseases, and damage to the liver, kidney, and the cardiovascular, nervous, and endocrine systems. It also competes with selenium, preventing its incorporation into the selenoproteins.This reduces the levels of selenium containing antioxidants and also the selenoenzymes that are essential for thyroid hormone production, thereby severely compomising thyroid function. Dried Urinary arsenic is a good indicator of recent arsenic exposure, since around 80% of dietary arsenic is excreted into urine within 3 days.
A highly toxic heavy metal that can accumulate in body tissues including the brain. Besides occupational exposure, most human exposure to mercury is through dental amalgams, seafoods, and vaccinations. Mercury toxicity can cause nervous system damage,leading to symptoms such as paresthesia, mood changes, and sensory disturbances, while very excessive exposure can also lead to renal toxicity, respiratory failure and death. Mercury and selenium have a very high affinity for each other and form a thigh complex, as a result, mercury reduces the biological availibility of selenium and may inhibit the formation of selenium dependent enzymes, affecting thyroid function in the same way as selenium deficiency or arsenic exposure. This is particularly problematic in people with inadequate selenium intake and consequent low selenium levels. Selenium can protect against mercury toxicity by sequestering mercury, reducing its bioavailability. There are three forms of mercury in the environment: elemental, found in batteries, thermometers, and dental amalgams; inorganic compounds, primarily mercuric chloride, present in skin-lightening creams; and organic compounds, primarily methylmercury, found in sea foods. Elemental mercury is most commonly breathed in as a vapor and absorbed through the lungs, while inorganic and organic compounds are ingested and absorbed through the intestine. The predominant form of mercury in urine is inorganic mercury. Urinary mercury level is an excellent biomarker for whole body exposure to both elemental and inorganic mercury.
• Iodine testing allows for determination of iodine status based on CDC and WHO guidelines for thyroid sufficiency, as well as extra-thyroidal sufficiency
Clinical Aspects of Thyroid Dysfunction
Thyroid hormones are primarily involved in directing the metabolic activity of cells, and a properly regulated thyroid is therefore essential to a wide array of biochemical processes in the body. Functional hypo- and hyperthyroidism can also result in symptoms even when hormone levels appear to be normal. Thyroid function can be affected by interactions between thyroid hormones and other hormone systems, particularly estrogens and cortisol, by some nutritional deficiencies, particularly iodine and selenium, and by environmental exposure to bromine, arsenic, selenium,
and mercury. Management of thyroid dysfunction requires an understanding of these interactions and careful monitoring of treatment with thyroid hormone testing. The presence of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies has been found to help diagnose thyroid disease in patients with abnormal TSH and/or thyroid symptoms with normal thyroid hormone levels, and is used to indicate the presence of autoimmune thyroiditis. Hashimoto’s disease is the most common cause of overt hypothyroidism and 95% of patients are positive for TPO antibodies. Thyroid dysfunction, including thyroid autoimmunity, is also strongly linked with infertility.