- Thallium (TI)
- Uranium (U)
- Gadolinium (GD
- Creatinine (CRTN) in dried urine spot
- Safe and easy to use.
- Contains Urine Spot collection kit
- Test sample can be collected at the comfort of your home.
- Free delivery in the UK
- Test kit includes laboratory fee: no additional laboratory cost and tax.
- Test Result: You will receive your test result via email within 3-5 working days after Laboratory receives your sample. On your test result, you will find your hormone levels in graphics and numbers. You will also find Laboratory's comments by Hormone Specialist PhD Dr. In comments Dr will explain your hormone levels and what needs to be done next.
- Test must be used within 12 months after purchase date.
Rare Elements Profile Test Kit Pack includes:
- Test Requisition Form includes Symptom Checklist
- Requisition Form to complete including your personal and medical history
- Contains collection instructions
- Sample collection cards (for dried urine spot)
- Shipping Instruction
- Return Envelope
Elements Tested in Profile
Gadolinium is a non-essential element and not commonly found in nature. Daily intake of gadolinium from food/water/air is negligible. PAGE 5 Human exposure can be through contaminated water but is primarily from gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs), which are used intravenously to make diseased tissue look darker or brighter than the surrounding tissue on an MRI. GBCAs are associated with fewer adverse events than iodine-based contrast media; reported side effects include nausea, emesis, and headache, but most patients who have an MRI with contrast will experience no symptoms35. The half-life for GBCAs in blood is around 1.5 hours if renal function is normal, with 90% recovered in urine and/or bile after 12 hours36. However, patients with renal insufficiency excrete GBCAs up to 20x slower than those with normal renal function. A condition called Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis (NSF) has been linked to administration of GBCAs in patients with renal insufficiency; NSF leads to gadolinium deposition in the skin and internal organs (kidney, heart, bones, lungs) and is usually fatal. The FDA has recently warned that GBCAs are retained in the body, including the brain, requiring new class warnings. Gadolinium blocks voltagegated calcium channels and inhibits physiological processes such as nerve transmissions, blood coagulation, contraction of muscles, and can inhibit certain enzymes, mitochondrial function, and calcium-sensing receptors. Gadolinium deposition disease (GDD) presents with symptoms similar, but less severe, to those seen with NSF, but in patients without compromised renal function. Symptoms can include headaches, brain fog, hearing and vision irregularities, burning sensation, itchy skin, hair loss, nausea, digestive problems, trouble breathing, and thick skin. Levels of gadolinium in urine can reflect exposure from a recent MRI, or from cumulative exposure with multiple MRIs done years ago; bone degradation in patients developing osteoporosis may release gadolinium stored in the bones into the circulation, resulting in elevated urine levels. Testing for gadolinium exposure should be carried out at least 48 hours after an MRI to assess abnormal accumulation.
The primary sources of thallium exposure are coal fired power plants, cement factories, and smelting operations. Home grown fruits and vegetables around these sources can be a significant source of thallium. Thallium has higher water solubility than other heavy metals, so it is easily transferred from soil to aquatic ecosystems. Urine thallium levels are twice as high in smokers than non-smokers, but thallium concentration in cigarettes is much lower than other heavy metals like lead and cadmium. Thallium is primarily excreted in urine (70%) and feces, with urine thallium levels being the best indicator of recent exposure. Thallium primarily accumulates in bones, kidneys and the nervous system50. Thallium is believed to be more toxic than mercury, cadmium, and lead. Common clinical presentations of thallium toxicity are hair loss and nail irregularity, gastrointestinal and respiratory effects, and neurological symptoms like numbness/pain in hands and feet, which are usually reversible when exposure is eliminated. Thallium can also disrupt glutathione and induce oxidative stress.
The primary sources of uranium are well water, mine tailings, the nuclear industry, coal combustion, ceramics/glass, vegetables (especially root vegetables), shellfish, depleted uranium weaponry, volcanoes, and phosphate fertilizers. Root vegetables like potatoes, turnips, parsnips, and sweet potatoes contribute a significant amount of uranium in the diet and are linked to the amount of uranium in soil. Ceramic bowls and glass using uranium for a luminous lemon yellow to green color were shown to leach up to 300mg/L uranium. Uranium is also associated with mountainous areas of the U.S., with the greatest concentrations in Colorado, Arizona, Wyoming, Texas, Utah, and New Mexico. Once absorbed, uranium rapidly appears in the bloodstream, but is also cleared rapidly; it primarily accumulates in the bones and kidneys. Urine testing is the most appropriate exposure indicator, with high levels indicating exposure over the last 1-2 weeks. Around 50% of absorbed uranium will be excreted in urine during the first 24 hours. Uranium’s toxicity comes from its similarities to calcium; the uranyl ion can replace calcium in the hydroxyapatite complex of bone crystals, and the skeletal system is the major target of uranium exposure with around 66% of the total body burden found in bone.
A metabolic by-product that is excreted at a relatively constant rate as long as kidney function is not impaired. It is used to normalize the amount of elements extracted from the filter paper and to correct for hydration status; the greater the fluid intake, the lower the creatinine level. Iodine, bromine, selenium, arsenic, mercury, and cadmium results in urine are therefore expressed in µg/g creatinine to allow for urine dilution.